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Teledyne Hastings Instruments Blog

Laying a Foundation (1947-1950)

Posted by The Teledyne Hastings Team on Fri, May 10, 2019 @ 01:22 PM

Product portfolio 1947-1By 1947, the Hastings Instrument Company could count many successful projects.  Their list of products included the following:

  • Raydist Navigation System
  • Magnetic Switch and Coil
  • Maximum Recording Accelerometer
  • Visibility Meter

While the list of projects was impressive, the company wanted to grow their profits further. Charles Hastings decided to look at his business model and make some changes.  The company needed to raise capital for further development in order to become a sizeable company. Growth would give the company the ability to attract and close larger contracts.  To do this, Hastings decided to incorporate the business and offer 3500 shares of stock.  The company charter was received from the Commonwealth of Virginia on Valentine’s Day 1947. 

 

Air-Meter hand lettered dial faceAfter several sales pitches and demonstrations, Hastings received two large contracts for Raydist. Along with these two contracts, the company was busy building Air-Meters for commercial sales.  Before selling the Air-Meters, the instruments needed to be calibrated.  In those early days, calibration was done by driving down the road holding a probe out the window while someone in the passenger seat held the Air-Meter.  When the car reached 5, 10, 15 etc… mph the passenger would make a note on the blank dial face and then return to the house where they would neatly letter the dial face.

 

first office brick distributorDuring this period of growth, Hastings realized that it was time to find a new location for the business.  By now, there were 17 people working elbow-to-elbow at the Hastings’ home and that could not continue.  The company settled on temporary location in an old brick distributorship building that had a leaky roof and flooded at spring tides, but it was at the price they could afford.

By the spring of 1948, several Raydist contracts were in the works. Air-Meters continued to sell very well, and several instruments were about to be introduced.  That same year, the Hastings Company also moved into a more permanent building for its now 75 employees, which would grow to 118 by 1950.  To secure the company and continue to make profits, Hastings realized he needed to produce a Raydist for commercial use.  The company achieved this goal in 1950 with a sale to the Norfolk Corps of Engineers for hydrographic surveys and channel dredging.2nd building Horne Brothers

By 1950, the line of Hastings Instruments increased to the following:

  • Air-Meter
  • Precision Air-Meter (for higher ranges and more accurate readings)
  • Maximum Indicating Accelerometer
  • Voltage-regulated Power Supply
  • Electronic Standard Cell
  • Vacuum Gauge

1950 product portfolioIVentimetern addition to the list of commercial instruments above, Hastings developed specialized instruments for specific customers. For example: the “Ventimeter” was used by the army to measure ventilation in clothing to keep wearers comfortable under extreme weather conditions.  The Hastings Company was now growing fast and generating handsome profits for its stakeholders.

 

For more information on Teledyne Hastings be sure to visit our website www.teledyne-hi.com or contact us

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Information for this blog was derived from “The Story of Hastings-Raydist” book by Carol Hastings Sanders 1979

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Tags: Teledyne Hastings Instruments

The Birth of Hastings Instruments Company (HICO) 1944-1946 (Part 2)

Posted by The Teledyne Hastings Team on Wed, Mar 13, 2019 @ 10:22 AM

Charles_Mary Hastings Home-1In September 1944, the Hastings Instrument Company started to take shape.  For quite some time, Charles & Mary conducted the business out of their home.  They received their first order in December from the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia for $800.  The order was for a rotary magnetic switch for commutating electrical circuits. 

The following month, Charles built his first heated thermopile anemometer, which he called the Air-Meter.  This Air-Meter was based on ideas he had had in 1940 for making a thermopile instrument to measure aircraft speed.  It also incorporated his invention of a way to make a thermopile compensated for both temperature and rate of change of temperature. He decided to name his radio ground speed system by combining the first syllables of the words “radio” and “distance” to form “Raydist”.

working out of homeBusiness continued to grow.  Seventeen employees would arrive at the Hastings home around 7pm on Monday, Wednesday and Friday to work on their electronic projects (see image on right).  During the day, Mary would take care of miscellaneous projects.  On one occasion, Mary agreed to have some Raydist cabinets painted by the time Charles came home.  Unfortunately, the air compressor was out of air so Mary came up with another plan.  She would take the car to the nearby service station and put as much air in the tires as she could without them bursting.  She would then drive back home, attach her paint sprayer to the tires, and paint the Raydist cabinets antennas on homeuntil her tires were almost flat.  She did this several times to complete the project before Charles came home.  The business activities took a toll on the Hastings home. The roof leaked and needed to be replaced from all the antennas mounted to it (see image on left), the driveway needed to be replaced from the damage of delivery trucks, Mary’s oven smelled like paint which caused some challenges when meal time came.

Raydist AM transmitter on helicopterIn January 1946, Hastings received their first order for a Raydist.  The Air Material Command at Wright Field in Cleveland Ohio wanted a single-dimensional Raydist system to use during aerial photography and mapping.  The final product was hand-delivered by Charles himself in October. (see image on right and below)

This Raydist order was the largest order Hastings had ever received and he felt that once they were paid for it all, their troubles would be over. 

Raydist on helicopter at Wright Airforce Base

For more information on Teledyne Hastings be sure to visit our website www.teledyne-hi.com or contact us

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Information for this blog was derived from “The Story of Hastings-Raydist” book by Carol Hastings Sanders 1979

Tags: Teledyne Hastings Instruments

Before Hastings Instruments Company, the early years… (Part 1)

Posted by The Teledyne Hastings Team on Wed, Feb 13, 2019 @ 11:46 AM

charles-mary Hastings at work at NACAEver wonder where the idea or dream of Hastings originated?  Well as part 1 of our anniversary year blog posts, we thought this would be a good place to start.  Charles Hastings at the age of 10 was bitten by the radio bug and began to build and experiment with radio gear.  In 1930, at the age of 16, Charles Hastings found an opportunity to fund his experiments by fixing other people’s radios.  Many families had radios at this point, but they were very unreliable and frequently needed minor repairs.  Charles would fix radios to earn money to buy parts for his own experiments.

Soon, Charles moved on to building transmitters and enlisted the help of his high school friend, Raymond Doyle.  Their first success was when Charles spoke into a microphone and Ray heard the broadcast from his aunt’s house which was down the street. Unfortunately, the broadcast covered the entire spectrum of commercial radio broadcasting, so the entire neighborhood received the broadcast as well instead of their favorite radio programs.

After this first broadcast mishap, Hastings decided to go back to radio repair.

Charles Hastings went on to attend John Hopkins University and majored in Electrical Engineering.  Upon graduation, he was offered a position as Junior Scientific Aide with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in Hampton, Virginia. In 1939, Mary Comstock joined NACA as a mathematician and Charles was quick to ask her out for a date.  They were married within a year.

Working at NACA proved to be quite rewarding to Charles.  He came up with an idea for a magnetically operated reed switch for the spin tunnel section in order to flip the controls in its free-spinning airplane models.  This moved on to finding accurate methods to measure the speed of aircraft.  In 1940, Charles did just that, he came up with an idea for an airspeed indicator using a heated thermopile.  The idea was tested later that year at Langley Field in measuring the speed of planes.  This was the first continuous-wave heterodyne system ever used for speed measurement and was names the NACA Radio Ground Speed System.

His work continued at the NACA for a few years, but Hastings became restless and wanted to be on his own.  He felt that the work he had done with Radio Ground Speed System had more potential in the measurement of distances.  Initially Charles Hastings only wanted to create ideas for commercial products and sell the rights to others in exchange for royalties.  Hastings longtime friend James Benson was interested in being a part of this new.

Hastings Instruments Company was born in September 1944.

For more information on Teledyne Hastings be sure to visit our website www.teledyne-hi.com or contact us

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Information for this blog was derived from “The Story of Hastings-Raydist” book by Carol Hastings Sanders 1979

Tags: Teledyne Hastings Instruments

Facts You Might Not Know about Teledyne Hastings Instruments

Posted by The Teledyne Hastings Team on Thu, May 14, 2015 @ 04:45 PM

Quality Teledyne Hastings ISO 9001 CertificationLast month, we passed our ISO 9001 surveillance audit.  It has been over twenty years since we first obtained ISO and we wanted to take a step back and review some significant accomplishments.  

Teledyne Hastings Instruments rich history and customer centric vision continues to support, influence and grow with those who depend on quality process control and automation.

That's why we wanted to take a moment and celebrate a milestone with our core clients and those considering a Teledyne Hastings Instruments Flow instrument or Vacuum Gauge for the first time.


2015_Infographic_ISO_20_Years_2

Teledyne Hastings Instruments' has been providing quality thermal mass flow instruments and vacuum meters and controllers for applications ranging from academic research to space exploration for over 70 years.  Let us work with you to find the best solution for your process.

OEM, custom applications, lead time crunch, just curious:   

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Tags: Teledyne Hastings Instruments, Flow Controller, Flow Meter, Vacuum gauge, vacuum controllers, ISO 9001 and Thermal Mass Flow, ISO 9001 and Vacuum Gauges

FAQ Corner - Units for Vacuum Measurement

Posted by Doug Baker on Mon, Sep 22, 2014 @ 04:23 PM

Earlier this year, the applications engineers here at Teledyne Hastings discussed topics for our blog. We all agreed that one of the more frequent questions that we discuss with folks involve the units used to measure vacuum levels. We find the technicians who use their vacuum systems daily often seem to develop a sixth sense about the “health” of their systems. They know something isn’t quite right when the base pressure (or rate of pressure change) is not what they expect. So when pressure measurements are not consistent from batch to batch, that is the time when the user stops to ask the meaning behind the data that their vacuum measurement instrumentation is providing.

Now, most users know that vacuum is commonly measured using units of pressure. There are a few different sets of pressure units and this blog will discuss the more commonly used ones. In Armand Berman’s book, Total Pressure Measurements in Vacuum Technology, pressure unit systems are divided into two categories: “Coherent Systems” and “Other Systems”.

Coherent Systems of Units are based on the definition of pressure (P) as the force (F) exerted on a chamber wall per unit area (A). P = F/A.  The International System of Units, or SI units, is commonly used for pressure measurement. http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/units.html  The SI unit for pressure is the Pascal (Pa). It interesting to note that at NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology), published papers are always required to use the SI set of units. Again, the SI unit for pressure (force per unit area) is the Pascal. 1 Pa = 1 N /m2.

Now, the Pascal as a unit of pressure is not always the most convenient because vacuum systems are often operating in a range of pressures where we would need to collect data using large numbers. For example, near atmospheric pressure, we would measure approximately 100,000 Pa. So a more convenient unit, the bar, has been derived. (1 bar = 100,000 Pa)

Moving lower in pressure, it is very helpful to then use the mbar (1 mbar = 0.001 bar). So many vacuum users, especially in Europe, use the mbar as the basis for describing pressure levels. As a specific example, look at the base pressure specification of a turbo pump, it will be given in terms of mbar (e.g. Base Pressure < 1 x 10-10 mbar).

Another system of pressure units is based on the Torricelli experiment (shown in the diagram). In this experiment, the pressure exerted on the mercury can be shown to be P = hdg, where h is the height of the mercury column, d is the density, and g is the acceleration due to gravity.

 

Simple Barometer
 

 

By measuring the mercury column height, the user can determine the pressure. The Torr unit (named for the Italian scientist Torricelli) has been defined to be 1 millimeter of mercury (1 Torr = 1 mmHg). This unit is very common, especially in the United States. It is also common to use the mTorr (1 mTorr = 0.001 Torr). Many years ago, pressure was sometimes described in terms of “microns”, which simply meant a mercury column height of one micron (1x10-6 m). Note that the micron and the mTorr are the same.

One last word about the units used to measure vacuum: on occasion, there is confusion between pressure units. As we have seen above, the mbar and the mTorr are not the same. One mbar has the same order of magnitude as one Torr  (1 mbar ≈ 0.75 Torr).  The table below gives some approximate conversion values. A useful website for conversions:

 http://www.onlineconversion.com/pressure.htm

 

 

Pa

mbar

Torr

mTorr (micron)

Atm

1 Pa =

1

0.01

0.0075

7.50

~ 10-5

1 mbar =

100

1

0.75

750.06

~ 10-3

1 Torr =

133.3

1.333

1

1000.0

~ 10-3

1 mTorr (micron) =

0.1333

0.00133

0.001

1

~ 10-6

1 Atm =

101,325

1013.25

760

760,000

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Douglas Baker is the Director of Sales & Business Development of Teledyne Hastings. Antonio Araiza prepared the Torricelli experiment drawing. Antonio is the head of Technical Documentation at Teledyne Hastings (and is among the best soccer referees in the Commonwealth of Virginia).

Tags: Teledyne Hastings Instruments, pressure, mTorr, mBar, micron, pascal, torr, vacuum pressure, units of measurement, vacuum gauges, vacuum meters, vacuum controllers

New! Free Teledyne Hastings Mass Flow Converter APP

Posted by Doug Baker on Tue, Aug 05, 2014 @ 02:56 PM

Teledyne Hastings is proud to offer our Mass Flow Converter app. We have created a version for iPhone, iPad, and Droid. We have also created a web-based version that you can find at www.massflowconverter.com

In this blog article, we will discuss the motivation to build the app, how it works, and how it can be used.

The first question you might be asking is: Why do we need an app to convert from one set of mass flow units to another? For instance, if you want to convert from inches to centimeters, you would just multiply by 2.54. But, converting between mass flow units is not always that straight forward. So we have developed a tool that makes it easy.

We are going to look at some examples, but first let’s review what we mean by mass flow. When we think about mass flow, it can be helpful to think in terms of the flow of individual molecules. So while flow meters are often specified by units like sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute) or scfm (standard cubic feet per minute), the mass flow rate is ultimately about the number of molecules (n) moving through a given cross sectional area per unit time (see figure below).

 

 Cross Section resized 600

 

 

 

So as our first example, let’s take a look at the conversion of 10,000 sccm (10,000 cm3/min) to a molecular flow rate. First, we need to ask, “How many molecules are in 10,000 sccm?” In the figure below, we show a container that is 10,000 cm3 in volume. Now, before we can calculate the number of gas molecules in a volume, we must know the pressure and temperature of the gas. We can use the ideal gas law:

n = (P * V) / R*T where n is the number of molecules, P is the pressure, V is the Volume, R is the Universal Gas Constant and T is the Temperature.

 

Framed Molecules per volume

Now we need to select some given pressure and temperature so that we can calculate the number of molecules – these are called the reference conditions or the STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure). In many cases, 0°C and 760 Torr are used for the STP. But this is not always the case. So it is always very important to specify the reference conditions (STP) any time you use a standardized mass flow unit like sccm, slm, scfh, etc (any mass flow unit that starts with “s” is going to need the reference conditions or STP specified). In our example, we are going to use STP of 0°C & 760 Torr.

OK, so here we go:     n = (1 atm) * (10,000 cc) / (82.053 cc * atm / K * mole) * (273 K)

Note that we have used a value of R in terms of pressure in Atmosphere (760 Torr = 1 atm), and Temperature in Kelvin (0°C = 273K). 

n = 0.45 mole

In other words, a flow rate of 10,000 sccm (0C, 760 Torr) is the same as a molecular flow rate of 0.45 Mole / minute.

OK that is the hard way. It’s much easier to use the mass flow converter app. In the example shown above, we would dial sccm on the left and Mole/Min on the right. Then to select the reference conditions, we use the menu in the center. See Fig. 3

 Framed screen shot mass flow converter app N2 resized 600

If you are like me, you will start to play with the App. And soon you will notice that the user can change the gas using the pull down menu at the top. But notice that in the case of our first example (converting from standardized mass flow units to molecular flow units), that the gas selection has no effect on the conversion.  This is because the standardized flow units (e.g. sccm, slm, scfh, etc.) are actually molar flow units based on reference conditions (STP) and the ideal gas law.

So, why do we allow the user to select gas? In the case of units like gm/sec, Kg/hr, or lb / min, we are going to need to know the gas so that we can calculate the mass. Let’s take a look at the case of converting from slm to grams/second. We will use as our same example of 10,000 slm (0°C & 760 Torr) and we will use methane (CH4) as our gas.

We showed earlier that 10,000 sccm is a molecular flow rate of 0.45 Mole / Min.  And since 1 slm = 1000 sccm, it is easy to see that 10,000 slm = 450 Mol/min. And since we know that our unit of choice (gm/sec) is in terms of seconds, let’s go ahead and convert our time units now:

10,000 slm = (450 Mole / Min) * (1 Min / 60 sec) = 7.5 Mole/ sec.

Now we need to know how much mass there is in a Mole of methane. Google is very nice for getting this number – just type, “Molecular weight of methane” and here is the result:

 

Framed mass flow converter app google screen shot resized 600 

 

By the way, Google will do this for almost all gases. So now we can finish our conversion and we get:

 

7.5 Mol / sec * (16.04 g/mol) = 120 g/sec

 


Framed mass flow converter app screen shot CH4 2 resized 600 

 

The mass flow converter app and website www.massflowconverter.com takes all the work out of these conversions and we hope that you will find this tool helpful. If you have any questions about mass flow meters and controllers, Application Engineers at Teledyne Hastings are always happy to help.

Tags: Teledyne Hastings Instruments, Flow Controller, Flow Meter, mass flow conversion, Mass Flow Calculator, Mass Flow Range, Gas Flow Range, Mass Flow, units conversion

FAQ Corner – Specifying range, pressures on Mass Flow Instruments

Posted by Wayne Lewey on Wed, May 29, 2013 @ 10:01 AM

We often see the label “One Size Fits All”.  This may be fine for some consumer goods.  However, it can be quite problematic when applied to items like shirts, gloves, or even golf clubs.  “One Size Fits All” also does not work for Mass Flow Controllers (MFC).  Not all applications are alike.  Forcing a “One Size Fits All” MFC into an unsuitable application can squander accuracy and induce valve failure.

Why do you need to specify the gas flow range on a MFC?  The Full Scale (FS) Range and Gas on a MFC directly correlates to the transmitted output (analog or digital) of the device.  In an analog device, the maximum output value (such as 5 vdc or 20 mA) will be equivalent to the FS value.  The accuracy of most MFCs is a function of this FS Range.  For analog devices, it is commonly ±1% of FS.  For digital devices, it is commonly published to be ±(0.5% of Reading + 0.2% FS).  Selecting the FS Range close to an application’s maximum flow rate optimizes accuracy for that specific application.  This is a good practice.  In addition, the gas must be specified.  Most MFCs use thermal based sensors.  These sensors actually measure the molecular flow rate rather than the mass flow rate.  Various gas molecules transfer heat differently, and thus the gas must be known.

Why do you need to specify Upstream Pressure and Downstream Pressure on a MFC?  Again, not all applications are the same.  A “One Size Fits All” MFC is typically not set up for applications at high pressure, low pressure, high differential pressure, or low differential pressure.  The definition of high and low will also fluctuate from one user to another.  Teledyne Hastings Instruments selects and tests MFC valve components (orifice, spring, etc.) that optimize valve stability for the exact application pressure conditions.When using a Teledyne Hastings Instruments MFC, you will always find the FS Range / Gas and the Upstream / Downstream Pressures listed on the serial number label.

Sample Calibration Sticker for MFC

 

Wayne Lewey was first exposed to mass flow controllers while an undergraduate at North Carolina State University (Chemical Engineering).  Today, Wayne is the International Sales Manager at Teledyne Hastings Instruments and can be reached at wlewey@teledyne.com.

Tags: Teledyne Hastings Instruments, Flow Controller, Gas Flow Range, pressure, range, differential pressure, mass flow controller, mass flow meter

FAQ Corner – Teledyne Hastings Instruments at Pittcon 2013

Posted by Brandon Hafer on Wed, Mar 13, 2013 @ 03:20 PM

It’s hard to believe that it is now March, which means that Pittcon 2013 is right around the corner. Teledyne Hastings Instruments will have Applications Engineers and representatives in attendance to answer all of your mass flow and vacuum instrumentation questions.

 

PITTCON 2013 LOGOPittcon is an annual conference on laboratory science that is organized by The Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy. Pittcon started as a small technical conference held in 1950. The first 18 conferences were held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, but the conference has since grown. Locations now vary from year to year with this year’s conference being held at the Pennsylvania Convention Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from March 17-21.

 

There have been many changes over the 60 plus years of the Pittsburgh Conference, and remains a worthwhile event to attend. Teledyne has had a presence at the event for the past 35 years. Included in the weeks events are thousands of exhibitors, numerous technical programs and lectures, and short courses. It provides the opportunity to meet and interact with scientist from across the country and around the world. Papers and articles are presented daily, illustrating the advancements in science in the past year. And finally, it allows for a single location to walk around and see over 17,000 companies and exhibitors with their products and technologies.

Teledyne Technologies Incorporated will have 4 companies in attendance at Pittcon this year. In addition to Teledyne Hastings Instruments, Teledyne Tekmar, Teledyne Leeman Labs, and Teledyne Judson will be exhibiting. Teledyne Tekmar is a leader in the design and manufacturing of analytical instrumentation including products for gas chromatography sample introduction, total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) analyzers. Teledyne Leeman Labs is a producer of world-class instruments for elemental analysis including ICP spectrometers, atomic absorption spectrometers and mercury analyzers. Teledyne Judson is a leading designer and manufacturer of high performance infrared detectors and accessory products. The Teledyne family of companies will be located in booths 916 and 917, which are located near Entrance D to the Pennsylvania Convention Center. Teledyne employees will be giving presentations on a variety of topics while at Pittcon. If you would like more information on the schedule or the topics to be covered please contact us or stop by our booth and we can provide that information.

Teledyne Hastings Instruments has a great deal of experience with the analytical instrumentation industry. We are always interested in new applications even if they do not exactly fit into the standard product design for mass flow or vacuum instrumentation. We are very willing to examine possible custom designs to meet the requirements of your system. Some examples of previous custom applications include a variety of non-standard packages for both our mass flow and vacuum products, modified electronics, high pressure designs, and even custom designed flow and vacuum sensors.

 

We welcome your comments and your questions and look forward to seeing you at Pittcon 2013. Please stop by our booth and discuss your projects with either Vikki Jewel or Brandon Hafer. You can also email your questions to Victoria.Jewell@Teledyne.com or Brandon.Hafer@Teledyne.comand we’ll be happy to respond and work with you. 

Brandon Hafer is an Application Engineer with Teledyne Hastings Instruments. He was raised in Pottsville in Eastern Pennsylvania and is a fan of the Philadelphia Phillies and Philadelphia Eagles. He is looking forward to returning to the Philadelphia area for Pittcon 2013. If you would like to contact him, he can be reached at brandon.hafer@teledyne.com.

 

 

 

Tags: Teledyne Hastings Instruments, vacuum instruments, mass flow instruments

FAQ Corner – What is the Importance of STP Conditions on Mass Flow

Posted by Brandon Hafer on Thu, Mar 07, 2013 @ 03:19 PM

As I go through the day looking at various mass flow applications, I often notice that it is very easy for users to overlook one of the crucial items required for calculating mass flow. Looking at an application with its established requirements, we often jump right to determining “what flow rate is required?” However, it is important to remember that mass flow applications using volumetric units must reference a standard temperature and pressure. But why is this the case?

When examining liquid flow instruments, we know that liquids are incompressible and thus the amount of a substance present is determined by the volume being used. This leads to a simple calculation using density with the already determined volume to find the mass present in the volume or the volumetric flow.

GAs molecules @ STP Gases, however, ARE compressible and so the volume is only one factor in determining the amount of material being measured. If we look at the ideal gas law that you may remember from a chemistry class school (PV = nRT), we understand that temperature (T) and pressure (P) must also be considered in the equation. Otherwise it is impossible for us to know “how much” of the substance (n) there is in the space (V) or flowing through the system.

But given all of this information do we actually end up with the mass flow? The actual quantification of this “how much” calculation is expressed in moles (n), which is an extremely large number of molecules of a gas stated as Avogadro’s number, equal to 6.02x1023 (Don’t be scared by this value, though. A mole is a number, just like one dozen is 12, so one mole is 6.02x1023 molecules). Since the number of molecules of a gas and the mass are directly related for each gas type (i.e. molar mass), we are able to calculate the mass of the volume or volumetric flow based on the number of moles present. This is based on the assumption that the measured gas is pure and not contaminated with any other gases.

We’ll look at an example of the difference of STP conditions in a mass flow meter.  Teledyne Hastings Instruments assumes STP of 0°C and 760 Torr, but would prefer the customer to specify their STP conditions for the application. We will use the frequently referenced STP of 20°C and 760 Torr for the second part of this example. Suppose that we are looking to  measure 1 SLM (Standard Liter per Minute) of Nitrogen gas. As I’ve discussed earlier, the 1 SLM must be referenced to an STP value, so we will use our assumed conditions of 0°C and 760 Torr. If we were to change to the second set of conditions, the number of moles present in the flow (Molar Flow Rate) would change, and our mass flow rate would thus change (based on the direct relationship between mass and moles). Our initial mass flow rate of 1 SLM of Nitrogen at 0°C and 760 Torr would now be 1.074 SLM of Nitrogen at 20°C and 760 Torr.

Mass Flow Meter  Mass flow controllerAn important item to note is that the STP conditions are not actually present during the calibration of mass flow meters and mass flow controllers. Gas conditions are not brought to 0°C and 760 Torr prior to running calibration of equipment. The substance may not even be in gas phase at 0°C. The STP conditions are simply stated to define the standard volumetric flow rates of a substance IF it were an ideal gas at standard conditions.

This is also the reasoning for the addition of the “S” or “Standard” at the start of the stated volumetric flow rate (e.g. Standard Liters per Minute (SLM) or Standard Cubic Centimeters per Minute (SCCM)). We are stating the volumetric flow that would be present using standard conditions. So, using the information that we learned earlier, by stating the units in Standard Volumetric Flow Rate we are actually stating the Molar Flow Rate. This information changes based on the standards we are referencing and emphasizes the importance of stating the required STP conditions.

We welcome your comments and your questions about mass flow. Please complete the form below:

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Brandon Hafer is an Application Engineer with Teledyne Hastings Instruments. He completed his undergraduate degree studying meteorology at the Pennsylvania State University before serving as an officer in the United States Navy. He received his master’s degree in Systems Engineering from George Washington University and has been with Teledyne Hastings Instruments for two years. If you would like to contact him, he can be reached at brandon.hafer@teledyne.com.

Tags: Teledyne Hastings Instruments, Flow Controller, Flow Meter, STP, Thermal Flow, Standard Temperature and Pressure

Happy 45th Birthday Teledyne Hastings Instruments

Posted by Doug Baker on Tue, Feb 26, 2013 @ 03:17 PM

 

The entries in these blog pages are intended to provide helpful knowledge regarding vacuum gauges, vacuum instruments, gas mass flow meters, and flow controllers. But we could not pass an opportunity to celebrate an anniversary of sorts – on January 30th, 1968, Teledyne and Hastings - Raydist, Inc. announced that Teledyne would acquire the Hastings - Raydist company. According to the announcement in the Wall Street Journal, Hastings shareholders would receive one share of Teledyne stock for each 2.98 shares of Hastings – Raydist stock. So Hastings has been a part of Teledyne for 45 years…


Happy 45th birthday Teledyne Hastings Instruments!

 

Teledyne Hastings Vacuum gauge Apollo 11The history of the Hastings Instruments Company stretches all the way back to 1944. Next year, Hastings will celebrate its 70th birthday. But while we are in a corporate history mood, it might be fun to recall everybody’s favorite Hastings’ story:  In 1967, Hastings vacuum sensors were designed to travel to the moon and back. One of the objectives of the Apollo missions was to bring lunar samples back to earth. Special boxes, fitted with Hastings vacuum thermocouples were designed and built by Oak Ridge National Labs. Each box was required to be vacuum sealed; the Hastings thermocouple ensured that the seal was good before launch, and after splash down. The box and sensor worked perfectly.  Today, the thermopiles from the Apollo 14 mission are on display on a wall between one of the company’s conference rooms and a hallway. A magnifying lens and lamp installed in the display allows visitors to see the vacuum sensor.

Carol Hastings Saunders, daughter of Charles and Mary Hastings, recounts an interesting story in her book, “The Story of Hastings Raydist”. Two years prior to the acquisition of Hastings by Teledyne, Hastings was looking for an acquisition of its own to handle military contracts. The company considered Automated Specialties in Charlottesville Virginia. In 1965, Hastings began to acquire Automated Specialties by investing $100,000.But before the year was over, Automated Specialties was itself acquired by Teledyne. As a result, Hastings then held 11,948 shares of Teledyne. In late 1966, Hastings sold the shares and recognized $800,000 after taxes. Not bad on a $100K investment.


Today, Hastings Instruments is part of the Instrumentation Segment of Teledyne Technologies Incorporated (NYSE: TDY). The Instrumentation Segment provides measurement, monitoring and control instruments for marine, environmental, scientific and industrial applications. The Segment also provides power and communications connectivity devices for distributed instrumentation systems and sensor networks deployed in mission critical, harsh environments.  A complete history of Teledyne is given in Dr. George A. Robert’s book, “Distant Force – A Memoir of the Teledyne Corporation and the Man Who Created It”.


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Douglas Baker used his first vacuum gauge while an undergraduate physics major at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. In graduate school at William and Mary, Teledyne Hastings vacuum gauges monitored the forelines in the vacuum systems in the atomic and molecular lab where he worked. Today, Doug is the Director of Sales & Business Development at Teledyne Hastings Instruments and he can be reached at dbaker@teledyne.com

Tags: Teledyne Hastings Instruments, Vacuum gauge, Sensor