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Teledyne Hastings Instruments Blog

New! Free Teledyne Hastings Mass Flow Converter APP

Posted by Doug Baker on Tue, Aug 05, 2014 @ 02:56 PM

Teledyne Hastings is proud to offer our Mass Flow Converter app. We have created a version for iPhone, iPad, and Droid. We have also created a web-based version that you can find at www.massflowconverter.com

In this blog article, we will discuss the motivation to build the app, how it works, and how it can be used.

The first question you might be asking is: Why do we need an app to convert from one set of mass flow units to another? For instance, if you want to convert from inches to centimeters, you would just multiply by 2.54. But, converting between mass flow units is not always that straight forward. So we have developed a tool that makes it easy.

We are going to look at some examples, but first let’s review what we mean by mass flow. When we think about mass flow, it can be helpful to think in terms of the flow of individual molecules. So while flow meters are often specified by units like sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute) or scfm (standard cubic feet per minute), the mass flow rate is ultimately about the number of molecules (n) moving through a given cross sectional area per unit time (see figure below).

 

 Cross Section resized 600

 

 

 

So as our first example, let’s take a look at the conversion of 10,000 sccm (10,000 cm3/min) to a molecular flow rate. First, we need to ask, “How many molecules are in 10,000 sccm?” In the figure below, we show a container that is 10,000 cm3 in volume. Now, before we can calculate the number of gas molecules in a volume, we must know the pressure and temperature of the gas. We can use the ideal gas law:

n = (P * V) / R*T where n is the number of molecules, P is the pressure, V is the Volume, R is the Universal Gas Constant and T is the Temperature.

 

Framed Molecules per volume

Now we need to select some given pressure and temperature so that we can calculate the number of molecules – these are called the reference conditions or the STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure). In many cases, 0°C and 760 Torr are used for the STP. But this is not always the case. So it is always very important to specify the reference conditions (STP) any time you use a standardized mass flow unit like sccm, slm, scfh, etc (any mass flow unit that starts with “s” is going to need the reference conditions or STP specified). In our example, we are going to use STP of 0°C & 760 Torr.

OK, so here we go:     n = (1 atm) * (10,000 cc) / (82.053 cc * atm / K * mole) * (273 K)

Note that we have used a value of R in terms of pressure in Atmosphere (760 Torr = 1 atm), and Temperature in Kelvin (0°C = 273K). 

n = 0.45 mole

In other words, a flow rate of 10,000 sccm (0C, 760 Torr) is the same as a molecular flow rate of 0.45 Mole / minute.

OK that is the hard way. It’s much easier to use the mass flow converter app. In the example shown above, we would dial sccm on the left and Mole/Min on the right. Then to select the reference conditions, we use the menu in the center. See Fig. 3

 Framed screen shot mass flow converter app N2 resized 600

If you are like me, you will start to play with the App. And soon you will notice that the user can change the gas using the pull down menu at the top. But notice that in the case of our first example (converting from standardized mass flow units to molecular flow units), that the gas selection has no effect on the conversion.  This is because the standardized flow units (e.g. sccm, slm, scfh, etc.) are actually molar flow units based on reference conditions (STP) and the ideal gas law.

So, why do we allow the user to select gas? In the case of units like gm/sec, Kg/hr, or lb / min, we are going to need to know the gas so that we can calculate the mass. Let’s take a look at the case of converting from slm to grams/second. We will use as our same example of 10,000 slm (0°C & 760 Torr) and we will use methane (CH4) as our gas.

We showed earlier that 10,000 sccm is a molecular flow rate of 0.45 Mole / Min.  And since 1 slm = 1000 sccm, it is easy to see that 10,000 slm = 450 Mol/min. And since we know that our unit of choice (gm/sec) is in terms of seconds, let’s go ahead and convert our time units now:

10,000 slm = (450 Mole / Min) * (1 Min / 60 sec) = 7.5 Mole/ sec.

Now we need to know how much mass there is in a Mole of methane. Google is very nice for getting this number – just type, “Molecular weight of methane” and here is the result:

 

Framed mass flow converter app google screen shot resized 600 

 

By the way, Google will do this for almost all gases. So now we can finish our conversion and we get:

 

7.5 Mol / sec * (16.04 g/mol) = 120 g/sec

 


Framed mass flow converter app screen shot CH4 2 resized 600 

 

The mass flow converter app and website www.massflowconverter.com takes all the work out of these conversions and we hope that you will find this tool helpful. If you have any questions about mass flow meters and controllers, Application Engineers at Teledyne Hastings are always happy to help.

Tags: Teledyne Hastings Instruments, Flow Controller, mass flow conversion, Mass Flow Calculator, Mass Flow Range, Gas Flow Range, Mass Flow, Flow Meter, units conversion

FAQ Corner – Specifying range, pressures on Mass Flow Instruments

Posted by Wayne Lewey on Wed, May 29, 2013 @ 10:01 AM

We often see the label “One Size Fits All”.  This may be fine for some consumer goods.  However, it can be quite problematic when applied to items like shirts, gloves, or even golf clubs.  “One Size Fits All” also does not work for Mass Flow Controllers (MFC).  Not all applications are alike.  Forcing a “One Size Fits All” MFC into an unsuitable application can squander accuracy and induce valve failure.

Why do you need to specify the gas flow range on a MFC?  The Full Scale (FS) Range and Gas on a MFC directly correlates to the transmitted output (analog or digital) of the device.  In an analog device, the maximum output value (such as 5 vdc or 20 mA) will be equivalent to the FS value.  The accuracy of most MFCs is a function of this FS Range.  For analog devices, it is commonly ±1% of FS.  For digital devices, it is commonly published to be ±(0.5% of Reading + 0.2% FS).  Selecting the FS Range close to an application’s maximum flow rate optimizes accuracy for that specific application.  This is a good practice.  In addition, the gas must be specified.  Most MFCs use thermal based sensors.  These sensors actually measure the molecular flow rate rather than the mass flow rate.  Various gas molecules transfer heat differently, and thus the gas must be known.

Why do you need to specify Upstream Pressure and Downstream Pressure on a MFC?  Again, not all applications are the same.  A “One Size Fits All” MFC is typically not set up for applications at high pressure, low pressure, high differential pressure, or low differential pressure.  The definition of high and low will also fluctuate from one user to another.  Teledyne Hastings Instruments selects and tests MFC valve components (orifice, spring, etc.) that optimize valve stability for the exact application pressure conditions.When using a Teledyne Hastings Instruments MFC, you will always find the FS Range / Gas and the Upstream / Downstream Pressures listed on the serial number label.

Sample Calibration Sticker for MFC

 

Wayne Lewey was first exposed to mass flow controllers while an undergraduate at North Carolina State University (Chemical Engineering).  Today, Wayne is the International Sales Manager at Teledyne Hastings Instruments and can be reached at wlewey@teledyne.com.

Tags: Teledyne Hastings Instruments, Flow Controller, pressure, range, differential pressure, mass flow controller, Gas Flow Range, mass flow meter